22 jun. 2014

CISSP: Cryptography

Cryptography can provide confidentiality and integrity.
Diffusion: Plaintext should be diffused (disperser)
Confusion: relation between plaintext and ciphertext should be confused (or random)

Substitution: Replace one character for another
Permutation (transposition): Anagram style

Monoalphabetic cipher: susceptible to frequency analysis
Polyalphabetic cipher.


Crypto History
Egyptian hieroglyphics
Spartan scytale
Rotation Cipher: Caesar cipher, ROT-13
Vigenere cipher
Cipher disk
Jefferson disk
Book cipher and running-key cipher
Codebook
One-time pad
Vernam cipher
Purple
Enigma
SIGABA

Crypto Laws
COCOM
Wassenaar Arrangement



Symmetric Cryptography

DES: Standard name that describes DEA (Data Encryption Algorithm)
ECB
CBC
CFB
OFB
CTR

TDES: Standar name that describe TDEA

1TDES EDE
2TDES EDE
3TDES EDE

AES: Standar name that describe Rijndael
ShiftRows
MixColumns
SubBytes
AddRoundKey

Blowfish and Twofish
RC5 and RC6

Asymmetric Cryptography

Asymetric methods:
Factoring prime numbers
Discrete logarithm
Elliptic curve cryptography

Hash Functions
MD5
SHA1
SHA2
HAVAL

Cryptographic Attacks
Bruteforce
Social engineering
Known plaintext
Chosen plaintext and adaptive chosen plaintext
Chosen ciphertext and adaptive chosen plantext
Meet-in-the-middle attack
Know Key
Differential cryptanalysis
Linear cryptanalysis
Side-channel attacks
Implementation attacks
Birthday attack
Key clustering


Digital Signature: Provide authentication and integrity, non-repudiation
Message Authenticate Code (MAC)
HMAC
PKI

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